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Electrophoresis chamber

The electrophoresis chamber is the device in which the sample is introduced for this process, and where the electromagnetic field that is formed in the electrophoresis process is created, it takes place within a buffer solution in which the gel is immersed; the high concentration of electrolytes makes possible the transition of the electrical current. The principle of electrophoresis consists in the migration of molecules through the gel generated by the electromagnetic field according to the molecular weight and size. The gel has pores that act as a colator, causing small molecules to move faster than large molecules. In the chamber there are two poles that connect to the power source.

There are two types of electrophoresis chambers, the horizontal chamber where DNA and RNA are generally processed, and the horizontal chamber has its positive pole at one end, and the vertical chamber where proteins and DNA are worked, which has the positive pole at its lower end. In both types of cameras, it is possible to distinguish the negative pole from the positive pole due to the difference in colors, since the positive pole is identified as red and the negative as black.

Components of the Electrophoresis Chamber

  • It has two glass plates of the same thickness and width, but varies the length according to the camera model.
  • Two spreaders, which are made of a flexible and resistant material; they determine the thickness of the gel.
  • A comb, which has the same thickness as the spreaders and is also made of the same material, polyethylene or teflon; used to mold the corridors where the samples will be placed.
  • A stand or base: it is a component that has as function to assemble with the glasses with the spreaders with presses that hold the system of the camera together.
  • The electrophoresis tank: It is the container containing the run buffer.
  • Power source: is the component that provides electrical energy to the electrophoresis chamber and allows to regulate the amperage, time and voltage according to the parameters considered necessary.

The importance of electrophoresis in many aspects is remarkable, but especially in the area of medicine. Since it is useful to compare samples from a healthy individual with those from a sick patient, allowing the identification of nucleic acids of infectious agents, opening the way to the diagnosis of various diseases, and thus be able to treat the individual with the correct medication.

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