What is the importance of an electrosurgery or electrosurgical unit?

An electrosurgery unit or electrosurgical unit is a medical device that transmits energy in a controlled manner to living tissue for surgical purposes in order to cut, coagulate, fulgurate, and desiccate tissues, depending on the parameters established by the medical operator.

This medical instrument is currently considered an essential device in operating rooms, and the importance of an electrosurgical unit is that with its use precise incisions are obtained without the need to exert pressure on the tissues, as well as easy access to difficult or difficult areas. compromised, allows excellent comfort in the lifting of hypertrophic tissues, helps in the containment of hemorrhages and the healing of gingival tissues with correct use, and also prevents the infiltration of microorganisms in the incision line.

Advantages of using an electrosurgery

  • The electrosurgery considerably reduces tissue bleeding, thereby avoiding the use of gauze, which has been associated with surgical site infections.
  • Facilitates adequate asepsis, reducing the probability of transmission of infections from diseased to healthy tissues.
  • Allows considerable time savings.
  • They offer variety in the appropriate instrumentation for each surgical act.

How an electrosurgery works

The electrosurgery or electrosurgical unit circulates high frequency and moderate or high intensity current between two electrodes applied to the body. This causes heat to be generated at the applied site, cutting (known as electrosection) or coagulating (electrocoagulation) the tissue. In other words, this equipment uses high-frequency electrical energy to create heat, in order to coagulate or cut biological tissues. The frequencies used are above 200,000 Hz, this means that they do not interfere with the nervous processes, since they only produce heat.

The heat energy comes from the electrons moving from the atoms at the rate of an electrical potential difference (that is, their movement from the area with the greatest number of electrons to one with the least number of electrons); this movement of particles produces photons that possess energy, which is transformed into heat energy.

The impedance, or resistance to the passage of electrons, presented by the tissues, manifests itself with an increase in heat, which is what causes the desired effect. Thus, with an unmodulated electrical wave, a pure cut is generated, but if the wave is modulated or interrupted, coagulation is obtained. The patient is part of the electrical circuit that makes up the electrosurgery equipment, therefore, improper use can cause burns.

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